There is also still some confusion over the use of terms. Complex socioecological systemsoperationalizing resilience. However, when we think about resilience as a process, then we are talking about an organism. Resilience, which is the ability of a system to absorb, recover from, and adapt to disruptions so that the consequences are minimized, introduces a new paradigm to overcome challenges related to infrastructure vulnerability against disasters.
Resilience is focused on the ability and capacity of systems to resist shocks and to have the capability to deal and recover from threatening events carpenter et al. An analysis of this process helps to clar ify the meaning of sustainable development. Resilience provides sess the capacity to buffer perturbations, selforganize, learn and adapt. Hartley stuntzner, susan, phd, lpc, lmhpcpc, crc, ncc, is an assistant professor at the university of idaho.
I dont remember whether they cited stommel or steele, but they may have. What is new is that it uses established theory of nonlinear stability levin 1999, scheffer et al. Find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Ostrom 1999 has developed a detailed coding manual designed to elicit. It refers to the capacity of a system to maintain a specific set of functions in relation to a welldefined set of disturbances. The work presented here is a continuation of this process, including new insights emerging from the comparison of an evergrowing set of cases. Using two case studies lake districts and rangelands, carpenter et al.
Resilience of patients with chronic physical diseases. From an ecological perspective, holling 1973, who may be the. A resiliencebased approach to valuing decision outcomes has barely been explored carpenter et al. The resilience alliance has also developed a hand book on how to assess ses resilience. Required reading from the sustainability science book.
Instead of rehashing the aspects of resilience theory, i wanted to point out some common perceptions and assumptions on how people conceptualize natural resource management, as outlined by the authors. There is little fundamentally new theory in this paper. This book provides a wealth of practical tips on building personal resilience based on solid research and the experience of the authors. Therefore, a very useful way to conceptualise resilience is through the definition of socialecological resiliencethat, drawing from carpenter et al. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and. Many definitions of resilience include resistance either as a necessary component grimm and wissel, 1997. Second, the extent to which macroalgae outcompete or otherwise inhibit corals is also somewhat controversial miller 1998. The book traces the ideological basis the spirit of capitalism in the development of a protestant ethic in 15 th century europe. Specified resilience is specific about resilience of what to what carpenter et al.
Marty anderies,2 and nick abel2 1center for limnology, 680 north park street, university of wisconsin, madison, wisconsin 53706, usa. Integrating resilience thinking and optimisation for conservation. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. The exercise of measuring resilience is also highly variable, depending on the understanding and weight given to concepts such as coping, capacity, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. However, there is a danger in becoming too focused on specified resilience because. Toward a more resilient agriculture the solutions journal. The development of a resilience intervention paper is based on a program presented at the 2014 american counseling association conference, march 2014, honolulu, hi. Perturbation is a fundamental component of conceptualizations of system resilience holling 1973. In this sense, resilience is responsible for reducing societys vulnerability to these changes. This is interrelated with the systems capability for selforganisation carpenter et al, 2001. This concept has recently been developed and expanded into a booklength thesis gunderson and holling 2001. Exploring resilience in socialecological systems through. Resilience thinking walks us through the backbone of resilience theory, including discussions of thresholds and adaptive cycles, by using natural resource management case studies. Resilience is measured by the magnitude of disturbance a system can tolerate and still persist gunderson, 2000.
Operationally, the concept has been used in several ways, including as a metaphor associated with sustainability, a feature of dynamic models, and a quantifiable field measurement carpenter et al 2001. For example, benson and hopton use a definition of resilience from carpenter et al. Confronting largescale crises requires a major scalingup of management efforts based on an. Holling 2001, resilience is measured by the magnitude of disturbance that can be experienced without the system. Aligning different schools of thought on resilience of. Oct 01, 2014 if we think about resilience as a stable trajectory or predictive trait, then we can think about biological underpinnings or even ones genes as important determinants simeon et al. Becoming too focused on specified resilience to increase resilience of particular parts or dimensions of a socialecological system to specific disturbances may cause the system to lose resilience in other ways. The authors argue that for resilience as a concept to advance, an operational, measurable definition of resilience is necessary. However, there is a danger in becoming too focused on specified resilience because increasing resilience of particular parts of a system to specific disturbances may cause the system to lose resilience in other ways cifdaloz et al. When they correspond to a shift between different stability domains they are referred to as critical transitions scheffer 2009. However, others view resilience as an aftercrisis activity dearnley, 1976. Resilience can be further classified into specified and general resilience. Response diversity is particularly important for ecosystem renewal and.
This is a must read for those wishing to achieve high levels of performance from themselves and their teams while ensuring each person has an enjoyable fulfilling experience throughout their careers. Resilience theory, information behaviour and social. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem. It is an essential point of reference for those interested in the practical application of the concepts of resilience and viability. Resilience and ecosystem services an ecosystem services. This book uses complex systems theory and resilience theory to investigate complex socialecological systems and how human societies deal with and implement change. This book presented a major synthesis of resilience challenges for. The outer sides of the two praemaxillae run more parallel compared to the snouts of later. It describes the degree to which the system is capable of selforganization, learning and adaptation holling 1973, gunderson. Managing for resilience is critical for coping with uncertainty and surprise in a biosphere shaped by human action folke et al. In the context of multiple equilibria, resilience typically refers to the ability of a system to undergo disturbance without crossing a critical threshold and therefore return to the original equilibrium state carpenter et al. Linda moon stumpff fernando sancheztrigueros alan e. Studies on resilience need precision as regards whos resilience to what is investigated carpenter et al.
Resilience oxford research encyclopedia of environmental. Specified resilience concerns resilience of what to what carpenter et al. The evidence reveals that the likelihood of regime shifts may increase when humans reduce resilience by such actions as removing response diversity, removing whole functional groups of species. Its skull measures 29 centimetres 11 in in length, and its total body length is an estimated 3 to 4 metres 9. Characteristics of socialecological resilience are. Any strategies humans deploy to cope with disturbances introduce fundamental tradeoffs. Managing mangroves for resilience to climate change. Resilience is the capacity of a socialecological system to absorb or withstand perturbations and other stressors such that the system remains within the same regime, essentially maintaining its structure and functions. Libraries and other information agencies could, and possibly a moral argument could be advanced that they should, be promoted as part of an. Sustainable development progress that meets the needs of the present without. Weber was of course aware of the material origins of capitalism his work has been described as a lifelong debate with the ghost of marx but he in contrast focused on the ideas and rationale that produced capitalism.
Resilience is the magnitude of disturbance that can be tolerated before a socioecological system ses moves to a different region of state space controlled by a different set of processes. The same challenge can be leveled at the vulnerability literature. A quantitative framework for sustainability and resilience in. In the united states alone there were approximately 4 million reports of child maltreatment in 2015 increased from 3. Note that the term regime is preferred to avoid the. Managing for resilience enhances the likelihood of sustainable development in ever changing environments where the future is unpredictable. Specified resilience arises in response to the question resilience of what to what. Welcome to the sustainability science distributed graduate. The iucn resilience science working group on coral bleaching, resilience, and climate change was established in 2006 by the global marine programme of iucn, the world conservation union, on a 3year grant from the john d. The ra has contributed with insights on resilience in complex socialecological systems e. It has also provided a way of understanding resilience that.
As shown by the examples of socioecological systems within carpenter et al. The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply. To develop effective coping strategies in a rapidly changing world, we must recognize that a decision to increase resilience in one dimension is likely to increase vulnerabilities in another anderies et al. Civil infrastructure systems, especially geotechnical assets, are vulnerable to climate change, and natural and manmade disasters.
Martin, 2012 or a complementary attribute carpenter et al. The terms resistance and resilience are used in a variety of ways, which are often ambiguous grimm and wissel 1997, qualitative, and seemingly independent of disturbance type carpenter et al. Decades later, many commentators still highlight the difficulties of both developing standardised metrics for resilience and defining it in a way that clearly identifies the source and target of risk e. A resilience based approach to valuing decision outcomes has barely been explored carpenter et al. In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly. Pyrogeography and biogeochemical resilience springerlink. Sus tainability is the capacity to create, test, and main tain adaptive capability. Few studies have successfully responded to this challenge. Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for africa and the arabian peninsula at 0 and 6000 years. Finally, decision analytic methods, particularly adaptive management. Human homogenization of landscapes and seascapes has altered disturbance regimes paine et al. With regard to specified resilience, the analytical steps follow the questions posed by carpenter et al. The book is intended for a general scientific audience of readers from the natural and social sciences, although it requires some mathematics to gain a full understanding of the more theoretical chapters. Given that positive adaptation fluctuates over time rather than being immutably fixed, an important area of resilience research concerns those who bounce back from earlier dysfunction.
Such perturbations and disturbances can include stochastic events such as fires, flooding, windstorms, insect population explosions, and human activities such as deforestation, fracking of the ground for oil extraction, pesticide sprayed in soil, and. Master of environmental studies students and profs ponder. Examples of how this progression of theory development and generalization has worked so far includes research on lakes and wetlands carpenter et al. A framework to assess the resilience of farming systems. Emotional resilience in the helping professions and how it. In its expanded ver sion, it provides a means of assessing information about the internal factors and external influences that interact to determine systemic sustainability. Master of environmental studies students and profs ponder the. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience esa journals. A short historical overview of the concepts of resilience. The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Prompted by escalating rates of environmental change, resilience thinking is one emerging applied. The body of the praemaxilla, the front snout bone, is short in front of its nasal branch. Child abuse and neglect is one of the most prevalent forms of trauma experienced in the modern world anda et al.1183 1128 145 859 562 137 1294 1297 93 776 886 894 1347 454 954 386 1393 817 100 1181 603 1381 69 1432 567 821 428 550 1116 366 1547 695 309 567 967 118 1076 810 1468 1406 1326